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Insect Pests

Subterranean termites, the most common kind, live in the soil. There are distinct castes within each colony- the largest group being the workers, blind and wingless they bore galleries in wood.
Forage for food and care for other members of the colony. It is the workers , along with newly-hatched nymphs that do the damage to the structure.
Soldier termites protect the colony from attack by invaders such as ants. In its final growth stage, the soldier termites acquires a long armored head and large strong jaws.
Each colony has one queen or more, whose mission is to lay eggs. These develop into new colony members.
There is only one primary queen , but when she dies, secondary queens are often produced.
Once a year new members of the winged reproductive caste develops, A single colony may produce several hundreds of these.
When environmental conditions are ideal, these new Reproductive members leave the colony in a swarm to seek mates and start new colonies. After flying a short distance, the swarm fall to the ground and break off their wings, locate mates and then seek a small space beneath a rock or wood in direct contact with the soil to begin a new colony.

Termite Control:
This standard gives recommendation for the chemical treatment of soil for the protection of buildings form attack by subterranean termites.

It includes reference to the chemical to be used, lay down the rate of application for usage, and outlines procedures to be followed while the building is under construction or after construction.

Pre-Construction Anti-Termites Treatment:
For the purpose of this standard, the following definitions shall be applied. Soil treatment- this is a process in which soil treatment is applied to a building during the early stages of its construction.

1- Vertical surface: treatment after the masonry foundation and the retaining walls of the basement come up to ground level.
2- Horizontal surface: treatment to top surface of plinth below ground slab level.
3- Around building at ground level: treatment of soil along perimeter of the building after the external walls are completed.

Essential Requirements for Barrier and Method of Application:
Condition of forming-barrier shall be completed under the whole of the structure.

1- time of application: laying of mass concrete should start when the chemical emulsion has been absorbed by the soil and the surface quite dry.
2- Disturbance: once formed the treated soil barrier shall not be disturbed. If by chance the treated soil disturbed, immediate steps shall be taken to restore the continuity and completeness of the barrier system.

Post-Construction Anti-Termites Treatment

1- Galleries in wood: Wood damaged by termites has galleries that tend to run with the grain.
Although some will cross the grain, these galleries can be distinguished from similar damage caused by other wood infestation insects because they usually contain soil particles instead of sawdust.

2- Mud Tubes: Are also evidence of infestation.
When termites cross concrete and similar surfaces to reach wood, they construct these tubes as a shelter.
The tubes are made of soil particles cemented together with saliva and excreted fluid waste.

3- Soil Passages: Termites feed on wood and cellulose materials, but they also need constant moisture to survive.
Colonies usually nest in the soil which provides that moisture.

4- Moist Wood: wood which is in direct contact with the soil such as under a dirt filled porch, provides the ideal condition for termites.

This standard gives recommendation for the chemical treatment of soil to stop the existing termites from attacking the building.

1- around the building drilling or trenching to be made to allow us to apply the chemical below the slab and near the foundation.

2- inside the building drilling 20 mm holes in the infested places and chemical dilution to be injected to reach the soil below the slab.

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